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Improvement of Hydrogen Storage with Nanomaterials

Improvement of Hydrogen Storage with Nanomaterials

  • Nov 04, 2021
Improvement of Hydrogen Storage with Nanomaterials
Over recent years, nanomaterials got interested due to its unusual electrical, mechanical, electronic, magnetic, surface, and optical properties. These high surface/volume ratio nanomaterials have important implications for storing Hydrogen and energy. Hydrogen is one of the evolving renewable energy sources, and it's abundant, light, storable, and energy-dense. Metal Hydrides solve the challenges of hydrogen storage and release. Nanostructured systems such as boron nitride nanotubes, carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, nanotubes, carbon nanocomposites/complex hydride, nanocomposite based polymer, alanates, and organic frameworks of metal are known as possible applicants for hydrogen storage in great quantities. The latest researches showed that if certain chemical and physical effects of nanoscale are used efficiently, nanoscale materials will provide benefits. This article focuses on nanomaterials' applications of storing molecular or atomic Hydrogen. Also, to improve the hydrogen reaction kinetics and thermodynamics, nano-crystallinity synergistic effects, and doping of nanocatalyst on complex hydrides or metal are discussed. Different novel sorbent systems (nanofibers, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, metal-organic frameworks, and polyaniline nanospheres, etc.), carbonaceous nanomaterials, and their hydrogen storing characteristics are outlined.

Introduction
Hydrogen, as we know, is a safe, convenient source of versatile fuel that is converted simply to the desired form of the energy and does not release any damaging emissions in the process. Effectiveness of the Energy conversion process for both, proton exchange membrane fuel cells and internal combustion engines is increased by Hydrogen. In fuel cells, Hydrogen converts the chemical energy directly into electricity, heat, and water. Nanostructured materials having gravimetric Hydrogen and high volumetric capabilities have been developed during the last decade. Currently, work is being done on the material of hydrogen storage to get the best desorption/absorption kinetics with vital contents of Hydrogen. Metal hydrides characteristics, for example, fast kinetics, fast discharging/charging rate, hydrogenation, cyclic and thermal behaviour, needs to be improved. In initiating a hydrogen economy, the storage of Hydrogen has a critical role.

Hydrogen storage materials should have the following important properties, e.g. lightweight, high volumetric and gravimetric density of Hydrogen, activation ease, fast kinetics, appropriate thermodynamic properties, low temperature of dissociation or decomposition, a high degree of reversibility, and long-term cycling stability. All these properties are for the catalysts and the physicochemical reaction at a molecular or atomic scale toward Hydrogen. Hydrides based on Nanomaterials can store oxygen and has all the properties needed for hydrogen storage. Efforts were made, which resulted in decreased temperature of desorption, cycle life, and enhanced kinetics. Kinetics were enhanced by adding into materials, an appropriate catalyst, also by ball milling with improved surface properties. The purpose of this article is to display possible, promising, and recent trends in hydrogen storage materials that are based on nanomaterials.

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